FAQ - Forex Settlement

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)

Hello, dummies
It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy.
TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started.
1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows:
Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself.
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets?
2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
(i) Swaps
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
(ii) Forwards
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
(iii) Collars
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts.
(3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
*EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
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Level01Main App Launch on 10th Oct 2020

Level01Main App Launch on 10th Oct 2020
https://preview.redd.it/8y1d9ion4er51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8a260daa2b740980958dfa5a9459bcf7405f9727
Level01 is the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading. Our main app will be launched on 10 October 2020. Get ready for real money trading.
- Clear, Transparent and Fair Options Trading DApp - Decentralized: Peer to peer options trading for more profits - Trade Fairly: FairSense AI calculates contract Risk/Reward - Reliable Data from Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters - Control your own funds: Trade mobile app includes non-custodial private wallet - Blockchain-based smart contracts for transparency and reliability - No tampering: Settlement finality on ETH blockchain - Trade-In Multiple Markets: Forex, Crypto, Commodity - Easy To Use: Generate profits from price movements, hedging or insurance.
Download and try it, https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=io.level01.android Quickstart Guide: https://level01.io/quickstart-trading-guide/ Web: https://Level01.io
submitted by Level01Exchange to Level01io [link] [comments]

We are live! Get your hands on Level01, the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading.

We are live! Get your hands on Level01, the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading.
https://preview.redd.it/zw7phqsvbhs51.jpg?width=526&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1410d020d405ef7c3fb1f81d74e795e91b5dac3d
We are live! Get your hands on Level01, the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading. You can try either Demo trading or Real Money trading. We provide free 10,000 LVX demo token for you to experience trading with our FairSense AI guidance without risk.
- Clear, Transparent and Fair Options Trading DApp - Decentralized: Peer to peer options trading for more profits - Trade Fairly: FairSense AI calculates contract Risk/Reward - Reliable Data from Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters - Control your own funds: Trade mobile app includes non-custodial private wallet - Blockchain-based smart contracts for transparency and reliability - No tampering: Settlement finality on ETH blockchain - Trade In Multiple Markets: Forex, Crypto, Commodity - Easy To Use: Generate profits from price movements, hedging or insurance.
Download and try it, https://play.google.com/store/apps/details...
Quickstart Guide: https://level01.io/quickstart-trading-guide/
Web: https://Level01.io
submitted by Level01Exchange to Level01io [link] [comments]

One more day to our main app launch! Get ready for real money trading.

One more day to our main app launch! Get ready for real money trading.
https://preview.redd.it/38yqms52tzr51.jpg?width=526&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8ae9736c169a6451fc9824f26600e53801eeea24
Level01 is the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading.
- Clear, Transparent and Fair Options Trading DApp - Decentralized: Peer to peer options trading for more profits - Trade Fairly: FairSense AI calculates contract Risk/Reward - Reliable Data from Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters - Control your own funds: Trade mobile app includes non-custodial private wallet - Blockchain-based smart contracts for transparency and reliability - No tampering: Settlement finality on ETH blockchain - Trade In Multiple Markets: Forex, Crypto, Commodity - Easy To Use: Generate profits from price movements, hedging or insurance.
Download and try it, https://play.google.com/store/apps/details...
Quickstart Guide: https://level01.io/quickstart-trading-guide/
Web: https://Level01.io
submitted by Level01Exchange to Level01io [link] [comments]

Our main app will be launched on 10 October 2020

Our main app will be launched on 10 October 2020
https://preview.redd.it/r2duflcppsr51.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b5c77fba0dcade486c30fb580b7fd85348e7b195
Level01 is the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading. Our main app will be launched on 10 October 2020. Get ready for real money trading. ☑ Clear, Transparent and Fair Options Trading DApp ☑ Decentralized: Peer to peer options trading for more profits ☑ Trade Fairly: FairSense AI calculates contract Risk/Reward ☑ Reliable Data from Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters ☑ Control your own funds: Trade mobile app includes non-custodial private wallet ☑ Blockchain-based smart contracts for transparency and reliability ☑ No tampering: Settlement finality on ETH blockchain ☑ Trade In Multiple Markets: Forex, Crypto, Commodity ☑ Easy To Use: Generate profits from price movements, hedging or insurance.
Download and try it, https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=io.level01.android Quickstart Guide: https://level01.io/quickstart-trading-guide/ Web: https://Level01.io
submitted by Level01Exchange to Level01io [link] [comments]

We are live! Get your hands on Level01, the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading.

We are live! Get your hands on Level01, the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading.
https://preview.redd.it/6yikxzprbhs51.jpg?width=526&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=49f372132681d480c122fdcf07dfb85d7821346e
We are live! Get your hands on Level01, the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading. You can try either Demo trading or Real Money trading. We provide free 10,000 LVX demo token for you to experience trading with our FairSense AI guidance without risk.
- Clear, Transparent and Fair Options Trading DApp - Decentralized: Peer to peer options trading for more profits - Trade Fairly: FairSense AI calculates contract Risk/Reward - Reliable Data from Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters - Control your own funds: Trade mobile app includes non-custodial private wallet - Blockchain-based smart contracts for transparency and reliability - No tampering: Settlement finality on ETH blockchain - Trade In Multiple Markets: Forex, Crypto, Commodity - Easy To Use: Generate profits from price movements, hedging or insurance.
Download and try it, https://play.google.com/store/apps/details...
Quickstart Guide: https://level01.io/quickstart-trading-guide/
Web: https://Level01.io
submitted by Level01Exchange to u/Level01Exchange [link] [comments]

One more day to our main app launch! Get ready for real money trading.

One more day to our main app launch! Get ready for real money trading.
https://preview.redd.it/7xixflx2szr51.jpg?width=526&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=122f8cb099cbe0ce621fbd538e0cf0f432ec587b
Level01 is the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading.
- Clear, Transparent and Fair Options Trading DApp - Decentralized: Peer to peer options trading for more profits - Trade Fairly: FairSense AI calculates contract Risk/Reward - Reliable Data from Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters - Control your own funds: Trade mobile app includes non-custodial private wallet - Blockchain-based smart contracts for transparency and reliability - No tampering: Settlement finality on ETH blockchain - Trade In Multiple Markets: Forex, Crypto, Commodity - Easy To Use: Generate profits from price movements, hedging or insurance.
Download and try it, https://play.google.com/store/apps/details...
Quickstart Guide: https://level01.io/quickstart-trading-guide/
Web: https://Level01.io
submitted by Level01Exchange to u/Level01Exchange [link] [comments]

Our main app will be launched on 10 October 2020

Our main app will be launched on 10 October 2020
https://preview.redd.it/qxk5wf6tpsr51.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=450016dd1557e59309586b0db0b8ca92fa585d3a
Level01 is the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading. Our main app will be launched on 10 October 2020. Get ready for real money trading. ☑ Clear, Transparent and Fair Options Trading DApp ☑ Decentralized: Peer to peer options trading for more profits ☑ Trade Fairly: FairSense AI calculates contract Risk/Reward ☑ Reliable Data from Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters ☑ Control your own funds: Trade mobile app includes non-custodial private wallet ☑ Blockchain-based smart contracts for transparency and reliability ☑ No tampering: Settlement finality on ETH blockchain ☑ Trade In Multiple Markets: Forex, Crypto, Commodity ☑ Easy To Use: Generate profits from price movements, hedging or insurance.
Download and try it, https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=io.level01.android Quickstart Guide: https://level01.io/quickstart-trading-guide/ Web: https://Level01.io
submitted by Level01Exchange to u/Level01Exchange [link] [comments]

Level01 Main App Launch on 10th Oct 2020

Level01 Main App Launch on 10th Oct 2020
https://preview.redd.it/io3b07pb4er51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=789d8531a328b4f047e141818f363bd96d3ec990
Level01 is the World’s 1st DeFi Platform with AI-Guided Derivatives Trading. Our main app will be launched on 10 October 2020. Get ready for real money trading.
- Clear, Transparent and Fair Options Trading DApp - Decentralized: Peer to peer options trading for more profits - Trade Fairly: FairSense AI calculates contract Risk/Reward - Reliable Data from Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters - Control your own funds: Trade mobile app includes non-custodial private wallet - Blockchain-based smart contracts for transparency and reliability - No tampering: Settlement finality on ETH blockchain - Trade-In Multiple Markets: Forex, Crypto, Commodity - Easy To Use: Generate profits from price movements, hedging or insurance.
submitted by Level01Exchange to u/Level01Exchange [link] [comments]

Concerns on DeFi

Hello,
Just wanted to share some of my legitimate concerns around decentralised finance with the broader community. To be quite clear - I am a huge fan of Ethereum and DeFi and believe this could lead to the future of finance. However, I do worry if there is a circle jerk within the community that could lead to a lack of adoption in the coming months. I will try and keep this as short as possible. By all means, do understand I am coming from the pov of sharing constructive criticism and not dissing on the efforts of those building.
If you are solving for these problems in particular, please ping me and I'd love to talk further with you
  1. On-ramps The largest problem for much of the developing world is the fact that while DAI can without doubt give dollar exposure, acquiring them is quite a difficult task. In fact if DAI demand goes up substantially in a region, it could have premiums of upto 25% which makes it a bad on-ramp tool without necessary liquidity in place. (check Wazir X p2p USDT rates in India for context). This problem is not endemic to DAI alone but is applicable to stable tokens of all kinds. With regional regulations in nations like Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Phillipines, Malaysia and India not being clear on stable tokens in particular, it becomes an uphill task for developers to build on it. More importantly, it becomes less appealing for the average individual to use. Now typically this wouldnt matter if the point of DeFi was to be a niche project aimed at a small community. However, DeFi has the power to be the first mass market blockchain tool for the world. Consider it to be the "e-mail" or "napster" moment for blockchain based applications. IF we are to scale then on-ramps and off-ramps need to be solved for. This can happen only and if the community begins engaging with regional regulators and exchanges begin providing solutions. In an ideal world, acquiring stable tokens should be as easy as venmo'ing someone $10 dollar and receiving say $9.90 (1% fee) in Incento (incento.io seems interesting, not shilling but do check them out!)
  2. Incumbent Efficiency In order for a system to scale past a certain point, the value add it brings needs to be considerably higher than the incumbent. Depending on the size of the remittance market, there exists multiple payments and wire transfer corridors set up by startups today to solve for quick transfers. In fact during times when a blockchain like those of Ethereum's or Bitcoin's are clogged - transferwise can prove to be a cheaper, better alternative than tokens. This is not to diss on the fact that decentralisation and immutability has a price attached to them, but for the average user today alternatives are far better than token based products. The challenge when it comes to scaling - especially towards L2 is whether products can be incrementally better than their incumbents in exchange for some trade offs (eg: relative centralisation in lightning for minimal fees and quicker confirmation). Today's DeFi apps have to make a call between being ideological and efficient because it seems there is a price attached to ideology and retail users aren't willing to pay that price.
  3. Slippage Much props to Kyber and Uniswap for solving for this on most DeFi apps but there remains challenges in how settlements for defi instruments today happen. As the scale of volume on products like DyDx and Nuo increase and the expected accuracy at which trade settlements are anticipated to be limited to, there will come a point in time where traditional market-makers will have to enter the system. At $500 million the DeFi space's largest traders constantly reel from price slippages and a lack of liquidity. How can we scale to $10 billion or $1 trillion without the kind of liquidity that could instill confidence in large whales. In order to solve this, there will come a point in time where hedge funds and dark pool service providers from traditional markets begin targetting DeFi instruments. The community will likely see this as an all out assault on the principles DeFi has been built upon but to be honest, this will be a quintessential requirement for the space to grow. We are seeing an early variant of this already with the likes of Cred raising $50 million to re-issue as debt (yes, not entirely DeFi) or with MakerDAO having VC partners that come from traditional backgrounds. Even in the case of products like Dharma and compound, the market-makers are hedge funds. We will see a convergence of traditional market products and DeFi soon. That will be an exciting phase imo.
  4. Product-Market Fit Debt is one of the oldest financial innovations in the markets. Quite literally. Some of the first ever tablets recorded debt obligations and as such have been quintessential to the growth of human civilisation. MakerDAO's proposition of issuing token backed debt is by all means revolutionary but in order to see true scale, DeFi has to grow beyond the individuals that can give assets as collateral. I reckon there will be a new layer of growth for DeFi soon that will be powered with open-data and AI. One where an individual's credit worthiness could be checked with the individual's permission on basis of on-chain tx activity and self sovereign identity. I also see a market for AI based lending rate predictions and forex management by central banks. Autonomous agents can realistically analyse tx's in and out of a country, account for macro-economic indicators and optimise internal lending rates and foreign currency reserves. Ofcourse it is too early for any of this to take place but within the next decade our markets will be far more (i) closer due to globalisation and (ii) automated due to improvements in AI. DeFi is all well and good but if we are going to beat the same old drums of economic instruments that were created thousands of years back, there may be no real value proposition here. LsDAI, rDAI, CDAI, DAI... are all interesting but the average user sees no value yet. Which makes me wonder if we are sitting around patting each other's back before we see something productive (a unicorn from the DeFi ecosystem perhaps?)
  5. Scale 4.5 billion. That's the number of unbanked individuals that can be catered to with an L2 payments solution powered by Ethereum. Challenges? On-ramp, storage of private keys, user education and bloody hell - marketing and user education. Emphasis on the last 2 because I feel not much focus is given on it. We can no longer build and hope the markets come. We are in an era of Zombie startups where startups with north of $100 million+ valuations in Mcap, that raised north of $10million in 2017 from ICOs are sitting on ~1000 users a month. People think the alts blood seepage is done but it is likely that that bleeding wont stop until we find users. And when we do find users, we cant expect them to be using a gazillion tokens, each with weird token economics and even more complex functioning to be using them. Standardising of token interactions through wallets and interoperability will solve for these challenges but its time we asked what are the biggest problems DeFi can solve today? Here are some hints.. NFT based Income share agreements -Non collateralised debt for gig economy corporations that are registered as DAOs -DAO treasury management -Forex off-ramps for tourists (P2P) More on these later..
Just wanted to share my $0.02.
submitted by WiseAcanthisitta5 to ethfinance [link] [comments]

How does the fxretail platform work?

Hello all, I searched this subreddit before posting this (there is no past discussion on this topic). I'm not clear about the Fxretail platform that has been launched last year (fxretail .co .in) and is promoted by RBI to allow retail investors in the currency market. All the sites I've visited, including news sites, bank sites (of the banks who have tied up with this platform) and the fxretail site itself, don't explain how the trading works and how the settlement works. They just seem to have marketing material saying that any individual who needs forex can now get it at better rates.
I'd be grateful if someone could answer the following question and explain this platform better.
submitted by whatisfxretailcoin to IndiaInvestments [link] [comments]

Whether India witnessed any leapfrog in the cashless payments due to DeMon & the force feeding by Govt & RBI? - fact check

Can you flaunt increase of even 200% of insignificant components like UPI and BHIM & say that we are leapfrog to DIGITAL UTOPIA? Ponder

Government is still in a Fools paradise and throttle the cash flow which is very much needed for the rural and retail economy of country

Edit:

If you have any queries related to this post, please address them directly to James Wilson on twitter.

submitted by in3po to india [link] [comments]

OMG and CLS / Forex

Let's fast forward 5 years, and assume that OMG has had moderate success, with full participation from current Omise partners and the platform is getting recognition and growing at a reasonable rate.
Now let's say the focus turned to pulling in the Forex market and the roughly ~$ 3 trillion in trades per day. Wikipedia tells me that the Continuously Linked Settlement (CLS) group handles roughly 50% of all Forex trades. In addition, it states that...
"Although the forex market is decentralised and has no central exchange or clearing facility, firms that chose to use CLS to settle their FX transactions can mitigate the settlement risk associated with their trades."
So it sounds to me like there is no coercive power forcing Forex traders to use CLS, and that OMG could potentially offer a lower risk alternative (assuming the platform is successful).
My question for you guys is, What potential roadblocks do you think could get in the way from stealing away this market share? I am thinking about the likelihood of new regulations being passed (I believe this ties in with SWIFT somehow) or maybe some competition from a government backed entity that could have some type of leverage / advantages I am not thinking of. For example, is it safe to assume that the majority of Forex trades come from central banks anyway? Maybe that ~$3 Trillion is mostly bank to bank, and OMG would only incentivise them to create their own centralized blockchain to reduce costs and compete, making it very difficult to get market share.
I am trying to not be overly optimistic, so pessimistic responses are welcomed. I rarely post here but I visit daily and really appreciate and respect the knowledge of this community.
submitted by pgarrity18 to omise_go [link] [comments]

Digital Gold: Gold Token that you must have

Digital Gold: Gold Token that you must have

https://preview.redd.it/6v10zlteoob41.png?width=544&format=png&auto=webp&s=f5b841317ea9142966a1474121e210c511380e92
Introduction
Blockchain is an absolutely explicit age moreover the loved gold metallic thus the cooperation of gold and blockchain the utilization of the virtual gold endeavor as a crossing over component makes the team a strain to deal with in the global fiscal market. It besides gives contemporary abilties that make low-expense exchanges, amazing unchanging nature, impenetrable security framework, most prominent savvy understanding usefulness, whole marketplace straightforwardness with considered fundamental assistance for ERC-20 wallets.
A gainful crypto forex item is really not difficult to find; on the off chance that you do it appropriately.
Be that as it may, because of the reality investment always makes people concerned and reluctant to begin, various beneficial financing stock are hard to perceive. Investments doubtlessly have perils, however you may decrease the ones misfortunes with alright expertise and actualities and the correct subsidizing steps.
Of the differing investment items accessible, here it's far Digital Gold financing stock with the aim to profit you.
The digital gold knows the risky aftereffects of market unpredictability boggling the exhibition of most crypto outside cash exchanges thus its guarantees a steady coin through pegging the token to the expense of gold spot rate, with modalities that give clients the likelihood to encounter an all-inclusive and a far more noteworthy relentless gold charge cost.
There isn't any requirement for clients to engage fears on the liquidity of this gold because of the reality virtual gold gives an autonomous live review that might be inspected to investigate if the correct amount of tokens in circle is earnestly indistinguishable from the amount of physical gold put away inside the vaults.
Gold as showed up with the helpful guide of many is an incredible financing plan and a urgent a piece of a one-of-a-type portfolio in view of the reality its expense will ceaselessly be solid in reactions to occasions and Gold has been said to hold its charge over the long time. On a more extensive awareness, I will say crypto remote cash has presented us a far more extensive perspective on factors past our innovativeness and with Gold token.
The Digital Gold Platform is a blockchain platform intended to energize the appropriation and the digitalization of the monetary gold markets, and their clear subsidizing devices. Digital Gold Platform wants to profit the selection and digitalization with the arrangement of allowing clients to look for positive amount of real gold, through the ERC-20 Ethereum-fundamentally based GOLD token.
Record Number To Screen Gold Bullion: 17081–9200 GOLD STEEL IN BULLION VAULT.
You can safe your gold tokens on any ERC-20 pockets. IMTOKEN, TRUST WALLET ARE Extremely Sheltered, Aside from YOU Quit FOR A Chilly Stockpiling.
Digital Gold token settlement subtleties
Ticker: GOLD
Contract Address: 0x2c36204a0712a2a50e54a62f7c4f01867e78cb53
Decimal:18
The Gold token is higher than any steady coin supported through fiat far off places cash in view of the reality the gold token can't be dispossessed or solidified and the reason for this is because of the truth the genuine gold that supported it's far spared in a quiet vault in a nation that lower back responsibility for with a law.
For more information visit:
Website : https://gold.storage
Whitepaper : https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
Telegram : https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter : https://twitter.com/gold_erc20
Medium: https://medium.com/@digitalgoldcoin
MY BTT Username: ittunes
Bitcointalk Url: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2631613;sa=summary
submitted by ironladyy to CryptoICONews [link] [comments]

What is Utrade?

What is Utrade?
A Brief Introduction to Utrade

The Current Situation of Financial Derivatives Market

The financial derivatives market is extremely large, and the daily trading volume of the foreign exchange market has reached 6 trillion US dollars, 53 times that of the New York Stock Exchange. The global foreign exchange market involves 170 currencies, with nearly 10 million traders, which generate huge amounts of clear demand every day. However, the centralized clearing system faces great challenges in terms of transaction efficiency, transaction costs, data realism, anti-fraud, anti-hacking, and many other aspects.
These demands in the foreign exchange industry are highly compatible with the technical characteristics of the blockchain. The blockchain, characterized by decentralization, non-tampering, low transaction cost, security, transparency, can be used in foreign exchange trading, data storage and other links to improve the entire foreign exchange clearing system. Generally speaking, blockchain technology can change the current foreign exchange industry landscape and bring new opportunities for change.

Utrade Exchange and Utrade Protocol

With the goal of helping users conduct global derivatives trading under fair and compliant conditions, uTrade consists of two parts, namely, Utrade Exchange and Utrade Protocol.
Utrade Exchange: Global Trading Platform for Derivatives
Utrade is a global securities trader for derivatives, providing users with derivatives trade like contracts for difference on digital assets, securities, forex, commodities etc., with the aim to: Multiple contracts on digital assets\securities\forex\commodities; Community autonomy and mining trading with billions of dollars daily turnover; Profit sharing, to be a first securities trader for derivatives owned by users; Attracting thousands of traditional OTC brokers to join the ecosystem to share liquidity.
Base on the tera-scale traditional derivatives market, UTP will provides a multi-level trading financial tool for the traditional digital asset market to greatly improve the existing trading volum
Utrade Protocol: a clearing system based on distributed ledger
Utrade is committed to using blockchain to transform the traditional derivatives OTC market and establish a decentralized clearing system, utilizing transaction on-chain and information on-chain to unblock the data flow in global trading platforms data, while helping each distributed brokerage to share liquidity, share the data, and ensure fund security, information security as well as authentic and credible transaction records.

Utrade’ s Visions for the Future

First Regulated Crypto CFD Exchange
UTRADE is committed to becoming the world’s leading derivatives trading platform, providing more convenient and diversified financial instruments for investment, risk hedging, and liquidity so as to create multi-level trading in the digital asset market.
Decentralized Clearing and Liquidity Sharing Protocol
The UTRADE Protocol will create a decentralized OTC ecosystem to help thousands of OTC brokers and exchanges around the world use the same underlying clearing and account protocol to share liquidity,lowering the OTC technology and trust barriers.
Full-asset Distributed On-chain Trading
UTP will give rise to OTC settlement business for digital assets/securities/futures industries, bring up investment and financing business for the mortgage/credit industries, and build a globalized full-asset OTC ecological community.
https://preview.redd.it/3or8uzesyyl11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=27d9a6cbb3a5a041f685df1feb9b1dae995bbf1a
submitted by utradeproject to uTrade [link] [comments]

Indian Financial Sector

As negotiations to finalise the long-overdue Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) enter final stages, Prime Minister Modi said India has put forward reasonable proposals in a clear manner and is engaged in the talks with sincerity for the free trade deal. Modi said India is clear that a mutually beneficial RCEP, in which all sides gain reasonably, is in interests of the country and of all nations involved in the negotiation.
-Business Line
A day after SEBI put in place tighter disclosure norms, Indian Bank, Union Bank of India and Lakshmi Vilas Bank on Friday reported divergence in their bad loans for the last fiscal ended March 2019. For LVB, the net loss widened to Rs 1,006 crore from Rs 894 crore.
-Economic Times
The RBI has rejected a proposal by ICICI Bank for appointment of Sandeep Batra as an executive director (ED) after SEBI penalised him in a case related to merger of Bank of Rajasthan.“The Bank has received a communication from RBI not acceding to the request for appointment of Batra at present and to resubmit the proposal for approval after one year from the conclusion of settlement proceedings,” ICICI Bank said in a regulatory filing late on Friday night.
-Business Line
The RBI has refused to relent on its guidelines requiring chief executives of private banks to mandatorily retire at the age of 70, setting the stage for Aditya Puri to step down as HDFC Bank MD & CEO next October, while Romesh Sobti will retire as IndusInd Bank chief at the end of the financial year.
-Economic Times
PSBs are talking to the RBI under the aegis of the IBA to allow a staggered recognition of deferred tax assets (DTA) for FY20 in order to avoid taking large hits on their bottomlines. “We are assessing the matter and even the RBI and IBA are talking about it,” said an executive aware of the development.
-Financial Express
US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin met RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das in the financial capital today. The two discussed “global and domestic macro-economic scenario in both countries and regulatory developments”, according to an official statement from the central bank.
-Business Line
The global investor which has submitted a binding bid to invest $1.2 billion in Yes Bank is a North American family office that is interested in picking up more than a third of the bank’s shareholding. “We have a nondisclosure agreement with the investor. The bank’s capital-raising committee could meet as early as next week to decide on the proposal and, should they approve it, the name will be made public,” said Yes Bank MD & CEO Ravneet Gill.
-Economic Times
Karur Vysya Bank has posted a 24.37% dip in its standalone net profit for the second quarter ended September 2019 to ₹63.33 crore compared with the corresponding year-ago period on higher provisioning.
-The Hindu
Lakshmi Vilas Bank, in a regulatory filing, said Non-Executive Non-Independent Director Anuradha Pradeep has resigned from the board.
-Business Standard
India’s GDP could grow 6.6% in 2020-24, lower than its 2013-17 average of 7.4%, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) said today.
-Economic Times
China's Fosun Tourism Group said it would acquire the Thomas Cook and related hotel brands for 11 million pounds in a bid to expand its presence in the tourism business.
-Economic Times
A 65 Year olddepositor of the scam-hit Punjab & Maharashtra Cooperative (PMC) Bank died due to a heart attack in neighboring Navi Mumbai, her family said. Kuldeep Kaur Vig (64) is the seventh PMC Bank depositor to have died after the alleged ₹4,355 crore scam at the bank came to light and the RBI imposed restrictions on withdrawal of funds.
-Livemint
NPCI on November 1 said the number of transactions of Unified Payments Interface (UPI) has crossed the landmark figure of 1 billion in October. "The total transactions of UPI jumped to 1.15 billion in October 2019 from 0.96 billion in September 2019," NPCI said in a release. Total transaction value of UPI stood at Rs 1.91 lakh crore during the month, up from Rs 1.61 lakh crore in the previous month.
-Moneycontrol.com
India's forex reserves increased by $1.832 billion to a new lifetime high of $442.583 billion in the week ended October 25, helped by a jump in core currency assets and value of gold, RBI data showed on November 1. The overall kitty had expanded by $1.04 billion to $440.751 billion in the previous reporting week.
-Moneycontrol.com
 -#021119 
submitted by venuangamaly to indianews [link] [comments]

SPARROW - The Leading decisions mercantilism Platform

The greatest revolution that the world has experienced so far is the innovation of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. The blockchain improve the system security, transparency and also has a feature that can decentralized a system. In the other way, the cryptocurrency is a digital currency that has changed the way we handle money and likewise the way will do business. The invention has open more opportunities in business and its impact has been felt in almost every sectors around the world. Majority of the world investors are shifting their attention to the crypto space because the space has been described as the new gold of the 21st century. Trading of cryptocurrency is not an easy thing, many were still finding it difficult to understand. So it is advisable to make use of exchange that have adequate trading tools that will safeguard and gives direction of how and when to trade in order for investors not to loose their investment. Let me introduce us to an exchange that possesses all the trading features and offer adequate security to the users fund; they are called Sparrow.
INTRODUCING SPARROW
Sparrow is a decision mercantilism platform. What do I mean by a decision mercantilism? It is an agreement that empowers an industrialist to look for or sell a basic instrument kind of a security, or a file at an arranged an incentive over an exact measure of time. So Sparrow is a decision mercantilism platform that is made with the intend to make every minute of every day, secure and dependable spot for dealers to deal with their risk besides as offer simple trading tools and secure motor for clients' particular wants. Sparrow will serve their clients with basic and safe tools all together that these members will construct utilization of their devices simply like the experts do. Sparrow is the main decisions mercantilism stage, giving the best gratitude to the executives risk and genuine your computerized resources https://sparrowexchange.com/. Sparrow is working on how to use smart contracts to change and engage foundations and individuals to exchange decisions that territory unit settled.
Sparrow is one of the biggest projects we have now on the crypto space; they have thrown Strategic Partnerships with noted associations like, Signum Capital, Du Capital LuneX Ventures, Arrington XRP Capital, Hyperchain Capital, Digital Currency Holdings, The Yozma group, QCP Capital, 256 Ventures, day of recognition Capital, and Kyber Network. This alone should tell you this project is the type no one should miss.
In Sparrow platform, looking for and corporate greed decisions is done on the optionsmarket, that exchanges contracts bolstered protections. The decisions mercantilism is one among the principal normal types of mercantilism accessible market or forex showcase. With decision mercantilism, merchants will the executives and oversee dangers appropriate and no one will lose capital.
Sparrow decisions is to give you the office to shield your digital assets through the TradePROTECT item or get Instant Premium on your advanced resources through the usage of the TradeBOOST item. Sparrow decisions region unit clear, adjustable, and simple item that intend to bring risk the board abuse decisions to a more extensive crowd. So in Sparrow, get a decision is tradePROTECT ANd sell a decision is tradeBOOST.
The TradePROTECT is an alternative and ideal instrument that protect advanced resources against unfriendly economic situations. The TradePROTECT is the thing that we tend to choose looking for an "out-the-cash, European, lined alternative". The client pays a non-refundable Instant Premium to get the best possible to exchange a particular advanced quality at the highest point of a fixed sum for a fixed strike esteem.
TradeBOOST is the ideal instrument to real advanced resources once the market is calm or on the off chance that you have a more extended term perused with short-run costs to meet. TradeBOOST is the thing that we tend to choose corporate greed an "out-the-cash, European, lined alternative". this recommends the merchant gathers a non-refundable Instant Premium equally for corporate greed the best possible to exchange a particular advanced quality at the highest point of a fixed sum for a fixed strike esteem.
ConvertNOW Facility is another component of Sparrow, it's work is known as SWAP, and what it does is to propose you to change back the bolstered monetary forms at Sparrow directly at this value. Sparrow's ConvertNOW Facility happens continuously and is absolutely free https://sparrowexchange.com/
KEY FEATURES OF SPARROW
Sparrow is a Straightforward Platform Sparrow decisions region unit lined and furthermore the least demanding approach to oversee risk and lift your profits
Sparrow is Adaptable Full-highlighted, adjustable and exceptionally fluid decisions mercantilism stage supporting the needs of each retail and institutional dealer
Sparrow is Dependable Sparrow decisions zone unit chose Ethereum great contracts on the NIDUS Chain, sanctionative clear settlement of advanced resources
Sparrow is Secure Industry-driving security and consistence. Your benefits region unit verified to the best security gauges that region unit severally evaluated.
WHY MUST WE ALL EMBRACE SPARROW PLATFORM?
In Sparrow Exchange, clients can just administration risk and lift their profits. In Sparrow exchange platform, with just numerous simple snaps, everyone can buy or create associate in nursing decision.
People can have awesome client aptitude with rearranged tools and an assessment motor driven by AI to supply them with the best worth at whatever point.
Sparrow Exchange will draw in a spread scope of clients, each retail and institutional dealetrader.
Sparrow is that the underlying decision corporate greed stage inside the digital money. it'll be a phenomenal favorable position whenever sorted out dealers enter this market.
SPARROW TOKEN ECONOMY
The Sparrow platform has two native token namely 'SP dollar' and 'SPO token' Sparrow dollar (SP) is the token that makes it basic for dealers to get a handle on the value of any Sparrow decision and to check contracts. SP will exclusively be utilized on Sparrow and can not be moved or utilized outside Sparrow; while Sparrow token (SPO) is that the token ERC-20 running on the Ethereum stage. SPO will be expected to pay gathering activity expenses, withdrawal charges and stage posting expenses. The SPO could be utilized as a transaction rebate with different benefits.
IN CONCLUSION,
Sparrow is the platform that can secure and control trading risks for cryptocurrency enthusiastic; Sparrow could be an appallingly encouraging task giving clients a simple and secure corporate greed stage. The users of Sparrow exchange platform will have a great opportunity to trade without fear because the platform is incorporated with tools that will make the users minimize and control risks.
For more Information about Sparrow, please visit any of the links below:
Official website: https://sparrowexchange.com
Bitcointalk ANN: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5146551.0
Official Twitter: https://twitter.com/SparrowExchange
Official Medium: https://medium.com/sparrowexchange
Telegram: https://t.me/SparrowExchange
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SparrowExchange/
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/SparrowExchange/
submitted by Chika08 to BlockchainStartups [link] [comments]

Mitrade Launches Proprietary CFD Trading Platform for Global Investors

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 48%. (I'm a bot)
MELBOURNE, May 6, 2019 - - Mitrade Global Pty Ltd, an innovative Melbourne-based online CFD trading broker, has launched its proprietary trading platform for global investors, both seasoned and amateur, to trade nearly 100 different markets of contract-for-difference products - including forex, indices, commodities and the trending cryptocurrencies.
As the foreign exchange market caps at an average of $5.1 trillion a day, according to the Bank for International Settlements triennial report in 2016, mobile trading continues to gain momentum among investors as a bridge for tactical global asset allocation.
"Mitrade is engineered to simplify trading," said Laura Lin, the Chief Executive Officer at Mitrade Global, "We understand traders' need for a clear and easy-to-operate trading platform instead of boasting powerful functions but having an ambiguous interface. This is especially true when it comes to CFD trading."
Mitrade features an intuitive one-stop account management for users to perform deposits and withdrawals, make an easy switch from demo to live account, and enjoy an overall seamless trading experience under a highly secured environment regulated by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.
About MitradeMitrade Global Pty Ltd, an innovative Melbourne-based online CFD trading broker, operates under regulations of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.
Making FX and CFDs trading simple, MiTRADE provides a proprietary trading platform with nearly 100 products and assets including FX, commodities, indices and cryptocurrencies best suited to investors' needs from around the world.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: trade#1 Mitrade#2 platform#3 Global#4 CFD#5
Post found in /economy, /ethtrader, /CryptoTradingFloor, /Economics, /BasicIncome, /CryptoCurrencies, /CryptoCurrency, /CryptoCurrencyTrading, /Crypto_Currency_News and /CryptoMarkets.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

What is Utrade?

What is Utrade?
A Brief Introduction to Utrade

The Current Situation of Financial Derivatives Market

The financial derivatives market is extremely large, and the daily trading volume of the foreign exchange market has reached 6 trillion US dollars, 53 times that of the New York Stock Exchange. The global foreign exchange market involves 170 currencies, with nearly 10 million traders, which generate huge amounts of clear demand every day. However, the centralized clearing system faces great challenges in terms of transaction efficiency, transaction costs, data realism, anti-fraud, anti-hacking, and many other aspects.
These demands in the foreign exchange industry are highly compatible with the technical characteristics of the blockchain. The blockchain, characterized by decentralization, non-tampering, low transaction cost, security, transparency, can be used in foreign exchange trading, data storage and other links to improve the entire foreign exchange clearing system. Generally speaking, blockchain technology can change the current foreign exchange industry landscape and bring new opportunities for change.

Utrade Exchange and Utrade Protocol

With the goal of helping users conduct global derivatives trading under fair and compliant conditions, uTrade consists of two parts, namely, Utrade Exchange and Utrade Protocol.
Utrade Exchange: Global Trading Platform for Derivatives
Utrade is a global securities trader for derivatives, providing users with derivatives trade like contracts for difference on digital assets, securities, forex, commodities etc., with the aim to: Multiple contracts on digital assets\securities\forex\commodities; Community autonomy and mining trading with billions of dollars daily turnover; Profit sharing, to be a first securities trader for derivatives owned by users; Attracting thousands of traditional OTC brokers to join the ecosystem to share liquidity.
Base on the tera-scale traditional derivatives market, UTP will provides a multi-level trading financial tool for the traditional digital asset market to greatly improve the existing trading volum
Utrade Protocol: a clearing system based on distributed ledger
Utrade is committed to using blockchain to transform the traditional derivatives OTC market and establish a decentralized clearing system, utilizing transaction on-chain and information on-chain to unblock the data flow in global trading platforms data, while helping each distributed brokerage to share liquidity, share the data, and ensure fund security, information security as well as authentic and credible transaction records.

Utrade’ s Visions for the Future

First Regulated Crypto CFD Exchange
UTRADE is committed to becoming the world’s leading derivatives trading platform, providing more convenient and diversified financial instruments for investment, risk hedging, and liquidity so as to create multi-level trading in the digital asset market.
Decentralized Clearing and Liquidity Sharing Protocol
The UTRADE Protocol will create a decentralized OTC ecosystem to help thousands of OTC brokers and exchanges around the world use the same underlying clearing and account protocol to share liquidity,lowering the OTC technology and trust barriers.
Full-asset Distributed On-chain Trading
UTP will give rise to OTC settlement business for digital assets/securities/futures industries, bring up investment and financing business for the mortgage/credit industries, and build a globalized full-asset OTC ecological community.

UTP — Global Derivatives Clearing System Based on Distributed Ledger
submitted by utradeproject to u/utradeproject [link] [comments]

Speed Trading on Level01: Where Matches Are Made

Speed Trading on Level01: Where Matches Are Made
https://preview.redd.it/rmkk5akjj6221.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=2ada3a99b9bc81a7002ade61ba4a193b575c76b1
It is 04.00am and you are wide-awake — so don’t just lie under the blankets. Embrace your jet lag, spring out of bed and whip out your phone and view the latest derivatives deals matched to you on Level01. You find that there is a certain thrill in deciding on the movements of a market asset. So why not make the most of your irregular rhythms and make more money?
For people who don’t know this robust Peer-to-Peer Derivatives Exchange platform, Level01 can feel overwhelmingly efficient when compared to traditional Derivatives Exchange. Contained in a global Blockchain infrastructure that spans from Seattle to Hong Kong, this brokerless platform hosts a vibrant digital eco-system flush with the movement of its native LVX token used to facilitate derivatives trade of trillions of investment assets across the globe. If you are a new user on Level01, you will be totally roused by the vast array of derivatives you can trade: Forex, Cryptocurrencies, Commodities, Stocks and Indices.
A quick refresher in derivatives trading for those who are not familiar: A derivative price is intrinsically linked to the price of something else like cryptocurrencies, indexes or commodities. Derivatives enable traders to dabble in popular asset categories like currencies or stocks without having to go through markets clearing houses or other financial market infrastructure. It is a versatile financial instrument that can be used in every market condition to achieve every investment goal.
How it works is simple: Derivatives trading involve studying market patterns and deciding on the direction of the price movement in a market asset and if it will be higher or lower than the ‘exercise price’ (also known as ‘strike price’) at the expiry time of a given derivative contract. For a contract to go into effect, it must be matched by a counterparty that will accept the opposing side of the trade. At the contract maturity/expiry time, the asset price is compared against strike price and one of the parties will profit on the contract’s predetermined investment amount. The allure of this financial instrument’s speed and convenience casts your qualms aside and draws you into this fascinating marketplace where you can make profits in a jiffy.
https://preview.redd.it/dlkq3vrnj6221.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=57efa90afca0d7255d852b45e224fdb244a8c1ef
You glance through Level01’s data feed that is streaming live from Thomson Reuters, and your mind wanders to a conversation you had with a retired investor on your plane ride with him earlier. He told you that during 1970s, the global investment market was thriving with activity from derivative trading. Back then, your aged companion added as he took a sip of his whisky, complex methodologies priced derivatives and people used computers 24/7 to crunch numbers. Computers were pivotal for the boom in trade. But things are so different now, he tells you. There is a wild quality to the traditional derivative marketplace and it is best to tread carefully: governing authorities warned of fraud cases by brokers and here there are no lifebuoys for drowning investors who venture too far without conducting thorough research. Apart from the high rate of losses and frauds, traders on the traditional market have to deal with hidden fees, slow processing through several middlemen and lack of accurate and credible information. It seems to you that there are more pitfalls to watch for on the traditional Derivatives Exchange. It is a massive contrast to the clean and efficient trading environment on the Level01 platform.
A DIRECT WAY TO TRADE You decide to make a trade, so you open your Level01 app and set a Trading Allowance (A) with the platform’s LIST (Level01 Intent Sealed Transaction) smart contract. LIST is a smart contract protocol on Blockchain that works like a trusted god-father of all transactions. LIST can:
securely store trade match parameters of all users initiate trade investment token transfers serve as the transparent trustee of fund tokens vested into a trade match perform automated trade settlement upon trade contract expiry determines of contract payoffs to the profiting party. Once you have set a token allowance amount, your transaction is cryptographically signed with your wallet’s private key. This functions as a pre-authorization for LIST to transfer out and temporarily hold tokens upon a trade matching until trade settlement and profit distribution occurs.
You are now free to trade on the platform by creating derivative contracts in any asset class up to the value of A. Your derivative contract contains parameters that allow other users to decide if they want to be the counterparty to your offered contract. Level01’s dashboard empowers you to set your trade parameters such as: expiry time of the contract (E), strike price and position (>SP, The electric kettle in your room whistles, and you make your cup of morning coffee. You read Level01’s user guide and learn that all derivative contracts that are created and placed on the Level01 platform are known as trading intent (TI). When you create a derivative contract, it is sent to a pool of TIs on the off-chain servers’ trading engine, where it is curated, sorted, and displayed to other users based on their underlying asset interest and search criteria at that moment. (see Figure 01 below)

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Halfway around the world, your trade match could be viewing her curated list of derivative contracts to match with, and she will consider the matching price (MP) amount for every derivative contract in the list, which can be dynamically adjusted to reflect changes in the current market price of the underlying asset. The MP is displayed based on Level01’s FairSenseTM algorithm, which is basically artificial intelligence that analyzes trade intent patterns of users on the platform and matchmakes or suggests them to counterparty users. MP is also partially calculated based on the notional value (NV, contract size) of the contract. If the contract is in an unfavourable position, it may require a bigger portion from NV to match with; and vice versa if the contract is in a favourable position, it will cost lesser portion of NV to be a counterparty matcher.
If your trade match is keen to become counterparty to your derivative contract; she can accept the current MP, and the platform system will automatically seal and finalize all parameters into a trade match (TM). The TM will be delivered at lightning speed to the LIST smart contract. LIST then automatically processes the contract upon its expiry, and ensures immediate trade settlement. Either you were right about the market price, or she is. Time will reveal whether the profiting party’s analysis of the market data is correct. (see Figure 01 above)
In a matter of hours, you would have lined up a few more derivative contracts that could result in profits that would make the down payment for your next sports car. Life is good with Level01, the World 1st Brokerless Derivatives Exchange in Partnership with Thomson Reuters. You make money legally, quickly and you do not have to worry about fraud, manipulated data or third party fees. All of your investments and profits are made and decided by you.
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Bitcoin (BTC) in Space: How Cryptocurrency Solves Interplanetary Payments

Bitcoin (BTC) in Space: How Cryptocurrency Solves Interplanetary Payments

https://preview.redd.it/vgflkm9pq3521.png?width=512&format=png&auto=webp&s=a822255aa5d6156920ea33b0efc979b152fba236
https://cryptoiq.co/bitcoin-btc-in-space-how-cryptocurrency-solves-interplanetary-payments/
Space exploration and colonization is an inevitable reality in the future. NASA and private corporations like SpaceX and Blue Origin already have the technology to launch missions to other planets, but they are taking their time to raise funds and ensure 100 percent success.
SpaceX says it will land people on Mars by 2024.
The richest man in the world and Founder of Blue Origin, Jeff Bezos, says he will create a large moon colony with or without NASA’s help.
Bitcoin with its instant, decentralized, and secure transactions that travel at the speed of light is obviously the perfect currency for space, but there are some downsides.
Here, we’ll explore the benefits of using Bitcoin in space as well as the caveats.
The cost of “launching” Bitcoin into space is simply the transaction fee, usually less than $1, plus however much it costs for the high powered antennas to communicate with the internet across long distances in space.
Compare this to fiat cash money, which would be impractical to launch into space due to the costs of rocket fuel. Launching a $20 bill into space costs $22. Perhaps launching $100 bills into space will work, but the fee would still be hard to stomach, and residents of the moon or other planets will not have any small bills or coins.
Perhaps a fiat system could be set up with all the $100 bills stored in a central repository and then people use digital ledgers to keep track, but why go through all that trouble if Bitcoin already solves this problem.
Decentralized currency will be important in space. For example, if Jeff Bezos decides to leave the Earth and become the emperor of the moon, there could be backlash from Earth governments.
This may sound outlandish, but it is inevitable that once colonization of other planets begins new countries will eventually form that have no territory on Earth. In the moon colony example, if they have USD bank accounts, they could find that all their cash becomes instantly frozen at the first sign of political trouble.
It will be just about impossible for a country on the moon or another planet to get their money back in the event of an account seizure. Just like Donald Trump says make America great again, whoever is President in the future could say make Earth great again, and seize all of the bank accounts of interplanetary nations in order to subsidize Earth’s economy. Space nations will need Bitcoin in order to conduct interplanetary commerce without the threat of account seizures.
The problem with centralized currency becomes even more severe for the space cowboys, people who go off into space and decide to do whatever they want to do. If they break a law in any jurisdiction, which could be as simple as taking their ship off-planet without permission, they would have their bank accounts frozen.
The only option for rogue space adventurers is to carry currency with them onboard, since if their bank is frozen, and they are depending on the bank, they will either die in space or have to go back to their planet and get arrested.
Due to the scarcity of cash in space, the only good option for space cowboys would be gold or Bitcoin. Gold is heavy, and would cost tremendous fees in the form of rocket fuel everytime they liftoff from a planet. Also, holding a large amount of gold on a spaceship would make them easy targets for space pirates. Bitcoin would never cost anything during liftoff, since it is on the internet, and it cannot be stolen unless the private key is given over.
Further, imagine if someone gets a job from an employer on another planet, which will be quite common in the interplanetary economy. Workers would likely never even meet their bosses, and the workers perhaps would not want the native currency on their employer’s planet, since they would never be able to physically own it.
Bitcoin can be personally owned no matter where people are in space, since Bitcoin is cryptographically secure, and possession of the private key provides full ownership, in the same way, holding cash in your wallet is full ownership.
As is already being witnessed on Earth, Bitcoin is a universal currency. Instead of making a complicated FOREX system in space wrought with account seizures and third parties, it makes much more sense to just use Bitcoin. A space economy fueled by Bitcoin would be far more liquid and efficient than a fiat currency economy.
There are caveats to using Bitcoin in space due to the speed of light. Bitcoin transactions would only be able to travel across space at the speed of light. This means it takes 1.28 seconds for Bitcoin to reach the moon from the Earth, three minutes to reach Mars, 33 minutes to reach Jupiter, and 67 minutes to reach Saturn. Double these times and add 10 minutes for the average Bitcoin transaction confirmation time on other planets.
We mention Jupiter and Saturn because they have numerous moons that are ripe for colonization and could be a hotspot for human civilization in the future.
The transaction times to other planets, even for Saturn which is over an hour, is not a major issue. Even if transactions take a long time to propagate to Earth and confirm, they would still be confirmed. Perhaps people on other planets should put the maximum sensible transaction fees to ensure that transactions confirm as quickly as possible once received.
Clearly, Bitcoin will no longer be instantaneous in space, since transactions would not even show up on the block explorer until the transaction propagates to Earth and back, but it will work.
Mining Bitcoin on other planets is a major dilemma. On the moon, mining Bitcoin will still be quite doable, since the few seconds delay is not going to prevent miners from striking blocks on the moon, it will just put them at a slight disadvantage.
Mining on Mars is where problems will begin. If a miner on Mars strikes a block, and someone on Earth finds the block in the 3 minutes it takes the Martian block to reach Earth, the Martian miner will not get paid. Some truly stubborn miners may mine Bitcoin on Mars, but they will be at an extreme disadvantage, and they will not profit nearly as much as Earth miners.
On the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, mining Bitcoin becomes intractable. In the 33 minutes and 67 minutes respectively it takes Bitcoin transactions to reach Earth, the Jupiter and Saturn miners will be disenfranchised 100 percent of the time. This actually makes Bitcoin centralized, at least on a planetary scale since whichever planet has the most hash rate will get all the block rewards.
This is just an Earth-centric view, however. Since Bitcoin is decentralized, another planet could generate 50 percent or more of the hash rate and disenfranchise all of the miners on Earth. To prevent this sort of thing from happening, perhaps it would be best to have Bitcoin Jupiter, Bitcoin Saturn, Bitcoin Earth, and so forth.
Versions of Bitcoin for different planets is especially important, considering that a planet that achieves a significant hash rate, but not a majority hash rate, would be dealing with constant forks.
For example, miners on the moons of Saturn may verify transactions and put them into blocks, only to have their chain orphaned whenever a transmission is received from Earth. If every planet is using the same version of Bitcoin, it would be much less confusing and more secure to only have miners on one of the planets.
Since it will be many years before colonization of other moons and planets becomes a reality, perhaps the Bitcoin developers will have time to optimize Bitcoin for use in space, to remove these caveats and ensure Bitcoin functions perfectly in space.
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Indian Financial Sector

The Government has no proposal to increase the amount provided under the Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana, the Minister for Rural Development Narinder Singh Tomar informed the Rajya Sabha today. -Economic Times
India’s financial system remains stable against the backdrop of improving resilience of the banking sector, even though the emerging trends in global economic as also geopolitical environment pose challenges, the RBI said. -Business Line
The RBI is reviewing its master direction on frauds and considering additional measures for timely recognition of frauds and enforcement action against violations, it said in its financial stability report (FSR). -Livemint
The RBI today set an average base rate of 9.18% for non-banking financial companies and micro finance institutions to be charged from their customers for the quarter beginning July 1. “The applicable average base rate to be charged by non-banking financial companies and micro finance institutions (NBFC-MFIs) to their borrowers for the quarter beginning July 1, 2019 will be 9.18%,” RBI said in a release. -Business Line
In a staggering revelation indicating that Indian banks have been under-reporting frauds. The Data released by the RBI in its latest edition of the Financial Stability Report, suggests that nearly 40% of the under-reported frauds actually took place in 3 years between 2013 to 2016. -Economic Times
Gross NPAs of NBFCs have risen from 5.8% in 2017-18 to 6.6% of their loans in 2018-19 even as net NPAs declined by 10 basis points from 3.8 to 3.7 per cent in the same period, the RBI’s Financial Stability Report has said. -Business Standard
After taking a hit on account of loans to IL&Fs, Bandhan Bank will stay away from big corporate loans, and will remain focused on micro-loans in the short term, C S Ghosh, MD & CEO of the bank said. -Business Standard
IndusInd Bank has now become 2.58% owner of micro -finance firm Satin Creditcare following allotment of 13.43 lakh equities against preference shares. -Economic Times
United Bank of India (UBI) is targeting an NPA recovery of around Rs 4,000 crore in the 2019-20 fiscal on the back of a one-time settlement (OTS) scheme, a top official said. In the April-June quarter, the bank is expecting a recovery of Rs 300-400 crore, which would mainly accrue from the retailing sector, MD and CEO Ashok Kumar Pradhan said. -Business Line
As per latest NPCI data, 33.5 million transactions worth Rs 9,000 crore happened over micro ATMs in May. The Aadhar-Enabled Payments Channel (AEPS), which falls under the broader category of micro-ATMs, has emerged as one of the fastest growing payments systems in the country, second only to the UPI system in terms of annual volume growth. -Economic Times
The SBI today revealed the names of 10 new big-ticket firms from the pharmaceuticals, gems and jewellery and power sectors and also their top officials as it declared them 'wilful defaulters'. Mostly based in Mumbai, the outstandings from these loan defaulters are pegged at nearly 1,500 crore, and they have been served repeated reminders to clear their borrowings. -Livemint
Bank of Maharashtra said it will raise up to Rs 3,000 crore equity capital through various modes, including follow-on public offer or preferential issuance of shares. The decision was taken at the bank's annual general meeting held on June 27, 2019. -Moneycontrol.com
SIDBI has committed Rs 3,123.2 crore to 49 SEBI registered Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs), who in turn have invested Rs 1,625.73 crore into 247 startups, commerce and industry minister Piyush Goyal said today. -Economic Times
In a first-of-its-kind initiative, a Jet Airways Employee Consortium and AdiGroup today announced a partnership to bid for 75% of the airline through the NCLT process, members of the consortium said. -Economic Times
Union Minister for MSME Nitin Gadkari said that his vision is to increase MSMEs contribution to India’s GDP to over 50% from the current 29% and that for the Indian economy to scale the $5 trillion mark. -Economic Times
PM Modi and US President Donald Trump Friday "aired" their concerns over the bilateral trade disputes and agreed for an early meeting of their commerce ministers to sort out the issues, a day after the US leader demanded withdrawal of the "very high" tariffs levied by India on American goods. -Economic Times
India has received USD 1.81 billion FDI from China during April 2014 to March 2019, Parliament was informed Friday. -Economic Times
India's foreign exchange reserve touched a life-time high of $426.42 billion after it surged by $4.215 billion in the week to June 21, RBI data showed. Forex reserves had scaled a record high of $426.028 billion in the week to April 13, 2018. -Livemint
USD/INR 69.02
SENSEX 39394.64(-191.77)
NIFTY50 11788.85(-52.70)
 -#280619 
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CLSSettlement - CLS Group Understanding settlement currencies for multi-currency processing. CLEARING AND SETTLEMENT,MARGIN REQUIREMENTS Herstatt Risk ( Settlement Risk) How Foreign Exchange Settlement FIX messaging Works

Every forex (foreign exchange) transaction involved the transfer of funds between two nations and that means that it also involves the payment and settlement systems of the two countries concerned in the transaction. For this reason national payment and settlement systems play a key role in the day to day operations of the forex market. Today there are a wide variety of payment systems which ... Clearing; Settlement; Risk Management; Settlement Mechanism. All futures and options contracts are cash settled, i.e. through exchange of cash. The underlying for index futures/options of the Nifty index cannot be delivered. These contracts, therefore, have to be settled in cash. Futures and options on individual securities can be delivered as in the spot market. However, it has been currently ... Get an overview of the settlement and delivery process for FX futures contracts at CME Group, looking at examples for British pound futures. Markets Home Active trader. Hear from active traders about their experience adding CME Group futures and options on futures to their portfolio. Find a broker . Search our directory for a broker that fits your needs. CREATE A CMEGROUP.COM ACCOUNT: MORE ... Unter dem Begriff „Clearing“ versteht man an der Börse die komplette Abrechnungsstruktur, was Verbindlichkeiten und Forderungen anbelangt. Die Organisation der Verwaltung und die Abwicklung von bereits ausgeübten Termingeschäften heißt im Gegensatz dazu Settlement. Clearing und Settlement werden von einem sogenannten Clearinghaus ... Clearing and settlement in the Forex market. Print version . The main elements of the clearing and settlement system on the exchange currency market are: National Bank of the Republic of Belarus-a settlement bank, a central counterparty (CCP); JSC " Belarusian currency and stock exchange-a clearing center. Clearing of trades is carried out by BCSE in the course of the clearing session during ... Settlement of Transactions in Forex Market Forex Management. Article shared by: ADVERTISEMENTS: The settlements of financial transactions across the countries are done through the support of e-wired and latest communication system, on account of the geographical spread among the countries of the world. Banks across the globe are using the latest telecommunication network named as SWIFT ... Process Flow for Forex Clearing and Settlement. 25. What is the cut-off time for receiving US Dollar obligation by CCIL? What happens if the funds are received post the cut-off time? 26. What is the process of Shortage Handling? 27. What are the CCIL charges/penalty levied in case of a default? 28. What is Shortage Allocation Process? 29. What are the various reports available for members? 30 ...

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CLSSettlement - CLS Group

International Clearing and Settlement - Noyes 2013 - Duration: 8:01. Tom Noyes 77,591 views. 8:01. ... Professional Forex Trading Course Lesson 1 By Adam Khoo - Duration: 58:55. Adam Khoo ... Best FX Trading Strategies (THE Top Strategy for Forex Trading) - Duration: 32:00. ... International Clearing and Settlement - Noyes 2013 - Duration: 8:01. Tom Noyes 74,605 views. 8:01 . Spot FX ... FOREX: How To Trade Pure PRICE ACTION (Make Trading As Simple As 1 - 2 - 3) No Indicators! - Duration: 20:07. ... International Clearing and Settlement - Noyes 2013 - Duration: 8:01. Tom Noyes ... International Clearing and Settlement - Noyes 2013 - Duration: 8:01. Tom Noyes 76,445 views. 8:01. What are Cross Border Fees? (And how to avoid them!) - Duration: 11:59. MerchantAccounts.ca 508 ... Why settlement risk is known as Herstatt risk? What happened to Herstatt? To know about NRO accounts please watch https://youtu.be/VhXpqJOwbH0 To know about ...

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